What do the letters in “AIDS” and “HIV” stand for?

Wednesday marked the 23rd commemoration of Worlds AIDS Day. AIDS is one of the most devastating pandemics ever recorded. Since 1981, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people. And, it’s estimated that 33.4 million people are living with HIV/AIDS. 

But what do AIDS and HIV actually mean? How are they related to each other, and what  are their full names?

AIDS, and HIV, are acronyms. AIDS stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. People who have AIDS have an increased susceptibility to life-threatening infections, cancers, and neurological disorders.

HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, causes AIDS. HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion, sex, contaminated hypodermic needles, childbirth, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys the important cells in the human body that fight disease and infection. While the immune system is capable of fighting many other viruses, like the common flu, it can’t fight HIV. Scientists are trying to figure out why.

(HIV should not be confused with HPV, human papilloma virus. HPV is a virus that causes genital warts and in some cases can lead to cancer. There are almost 200 types of HPV, and many cause no symptoms.)

While there is no cure for HIV or AIDS, drugs like AZT, the acronym for the drug “azidothymidine,” are prolonging the lives of patients. This antiviral drug is made from genetic materials found in fish sperm.

Cut lines: editing a multiclip with multitrack sound.(final cut pro tutorial)

EventDV December 1, 2006 | Balser, Ben Hello FCP editors!

This is the final installment of our inaugural 2006 run of Cut Lines. I started this column with the basics and have been broadening our foundation ever since.

You should be well-schooled in the fundamentals by now. In 2007, we’ll take it to the next level–you can look forward to advanced compositing, coloring, and other more advanced editing tricks in FCP!

This month, we’re going to take our Soundtrack Pro (STP) tutorial from last month’s (pp. 20-24) a step further by exploring how to use STP to enhance audio from multiple sources when editing Multiclip projects in Final Cut Pro.

The Multiclip/Multitrack Project I recently completed a multicamera edit that required me to sweeten a soundtrack drawn from multiple sources. Since you can’t really do this too cleanly with only the Multiclip feature in FCP, I used STP to help out. Please note that this is a holistic, nondestructive edit method, which is preferred in the Apple Pro Apps workflow. Also, keep in mind that STP is a major audio editing application, and we don’t have the space in this tutorial to cover all its functions. The two-part series that concludes this month is only a first step in getting you up and running with it. There is more you’ll need to learn to unleash its full awesome power. My hope is that when you get a glimpse of what it can do, you’ll get hooked and take the time to learn more about it. go to website a practical wedding

Before we get going, let me clarify that the Multiclip sequence feature is not the same as a regular Multiclip edit, and it is not the tool we want to use for this process. When using Multiclip sequences, all cameras must have synchronized timecode. (Most wedding and event videographers I know do not use broadcast equipment that syncs to a single timecode generator.) Multiclip sequences demand other things of your footage and project, but I don’t have space to go into that here. Suffice to say that, although it does have its uses, I don’t see it as a practical wedding or event editing tool. But if there’s sufficient interest in it–keep those cards and letters coming!–I may cover it in a future column.

Step 1: Preparing the Sequence Basically, we’re going to do a Multiclip edit as usual, then we’ll add more audio tracks, take it into STP as a multitrack project, balance and sweeten the sound, and finally bring it back into FCP. I assume you know the basics of how to do a Multiclip edit (See FCP5 User Manual, Vol. 2, p. 253), so I’ll cover only the setup, roundtrip process, and some tips for working in STP.

Let’s set up our situation here. I am working on a documentary about Louisiana Indians. I have to combine a mix of camera sound (which consists of two mono channels–two wireless mics from two sources), a stereo music track, and a mono Voice Over (VO) track. After I do my Multiclip edit, I right-click (Cmd+click if you use a one-button mouse) anywhere on the Multiclip and select Collapse Multiclip from the pop-up menu. All the sound in the Multiclip came from Camera 1. Cameras 2 and 3 were B-roll with no sound associated with the clips. The sound from Camera 1 occupies Tracks A1 and A2.

I’ll place my music track on audio Tracks A3 and A4, and the VO on A5. This gives us five audio tracks: one stereo-linked and three mono tracks Figure 1). At this point, let’s not worry about the actual mix or sound levels–just make sure that the sound is synched with the video. Save the project (it’s wise to save often, and to use Autosave Vault).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED] Now, I’ll go to the Browser, highlight our Sequence, right click and choose Send To > Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Project. A dialog box will appear asking me to give this file a name, followed by “sent” in parentheses (i.e., “(sent)”). This shows us that this is a file from FCP, edited nondestructively in one of the other Pro Apps. I also keep the “Open in STP Multitrack Editor” and “Include Background Video” options checked. This tells FCP that we want to export this as an STP Multitrack file and are ready to edit it immediately. It also tells STP to include the video portion so we can see what’s going on while we edit the audio portion. Remember where you put this file! I create a “Sent” folder in my main project folder for these types of files, to help with asset organization on my hard drive.

Working in Soundtrack Pro Once the Sequence is prepared, you’ll be in STP with your project open and ready for editing. I’ll run through a few of STP’s tools quickly here to help you get started. First of all, notice that each track has its own volume and pan settings. You can create Envelopes of these by clicking the disclosure triangle next to each track’s name (Figure 2). You can double-click on the rubber band lines to create a keyframe. Highlight a keyframe and hit the delete key to delete it. You can also drag them to change their value and placement. And you can right-click each for more options.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED] To apply a filter to a clip, simply double-click it. It will then ask if you want to do a nondestructive edit (this creates a new file), or edit the original file. If you have ever needed to go back to the original version of a file before, you know the value of nondestructive editing. So tell STP to make a new file.

This will then open the file in a new window. See the new tab at the top left of the Timeline window? Just like in FCP, you can have multiple sound and multitrack files open at once. In this Waveform Editor window, you can apply filters and effects, and do most of the sound sweetening and fixing you’ll need (Figure 3). Refer to last month’s Cut Lines, which explained how to do sound removal, as an example of how to apply and customize filters in STP.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED] Mixing sound levels in STP is easy, and the program gives you several ways to do it. You can set keyframes as described earlier, or simply change the volume and pan slider positions to apply changes to the whole track. Another option is to mix “live.” To do live mix, click the Mixer icon in the upper right of the Timeline window, or use the Cmd+2 keyboard shortcut. Once the Mixer is open, you can resize it and move it as you wish (Figure 4).

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED] To begin recording your live mix, look in the top left section of the Mixer. There you’ll find a drop-down menu with selections that include Read, Latch, and Touch. Select Latch, then hit the space bar to play and use the sliders to mix as you wish. You may also want to use the drop-down menu at the top right of the Mixer window to show the Transport controls, if they are not already showing. Once you’ve got your track mixed to your satisfaction, you can close the Mixer window and go tweak your Envelope keyframes. You can also go back and re-mix over a previous mix without having to delete all those keyframes. go to web site a practical wedding

Helpful Tips for STP There is so much more to STP–unfortunately, there simply isn’t enough space in a magazine column to cover everything I wish I could. It’s a fully functional professional mixing and sweetening application for film and video sound with a complex and enormous array of features. I strongly suggest that you check out Peachpit Press’s Apple Pro Training Series: Soundtrack Pro to learn the application more thoroughly. But given the space that we have, I’ll offer a few hints to help you get started.

Play start/stop can be controlled by the space bar, just like in FCP. The return key will bring the playhead back to the beginning of the timeline. If the song is not playing, Return+Shift will bring the playhead to the start of the Timeline and begin playing. You can alter the timeline to show the music’s native beats per minute (BPM) timing or the video’s SMPTE timecode by clicking the corresponding buttons at the top of the timeline window (metronome/clock icon). This won’t change the overall duration of the timeline (or the length of any clips therein), only how it is displayed.

You can zoom in and out of the Timeline window with the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard. Move single measures of time with the left and right arrow keys. Shift+Z will do a “fit to window” of your timeline, just like in FCP. You’ll also notice that when you apply filters in the Waveform Editor, they stack up in the left side of that window. Treat this just like filters in FCP. You can check and uncheck them to turn them on and off. You can drag them into different orders to get different effects, or you can highlight them and delete each if you wish. You can even make stereo files mono, and mono files stereo with one click in the Waveform Editor (Process > Convert to …).

Going Back to FCP Once you have your mixing and sweetening done, save the project you’re working on in STP. The application will ask you to review all the changes you made to the clips. This is an independent STP Multitrack project that you can come back to and do further work on at any time.

Going back into FCP, you’ll need to export from your STP project and then import that into FCP. Notice that last month, our individual clip automatically updated in FCP. Not this time. The reason is that there are so many output choices from STP that it would get confusing. From STP you can export via one master file or separate track files; you can also export directly to Compressor, or choose specific out buses. When I export from STP, I always make an “STP” folder in my project folder for file management purposes. Then I import that folder into FCP once I’ve done all my Multitrack sound work in STP.

At this point we need to make a decision: Do we simply want to export this multitrack project as a single AIFF sound file, or do we want to save out all our edited tracks as separate AIFFs with the final mix exported as an additional file? If the final mix is all you want to use in FCP, then go to File > Export > Export Mix. This gives you a single AIFF file that you can import and use in FCP. If you are editing this for someone else, or if someone else is doing your sound for you, you may want to select the Export All Mixer Objects option. This will export each track as an individual AIFF file, plus an AIFF file that combines all the tracks as you mixed them in STP. This way, you have more flexibility when you import them into FCP. For this project, I only want the final-mix AIFF.

Back in FCP, I’ll take our STP-generated AIFF file of our final mix and place it on an unused audio track in my Sequence. In this case, that means tracks A6 and A7. I’ll then turn off all other audio tracks except my final mix track from STP (Figure 5). The timing will match up, and it will be in the format of my Sequence, ready to go. It’s as simple as that.

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED] Happy holidays to those celebrating during this season. And until next year, happy editing, y’all!

Balser, Ben


  1. bantu Bob -  September 2, 2016 - 3:40 am

    This is a new generation new diseases we need a new doctors with new neology have a ability experience to now how to handle the situation of disease in a new generation some dangerous diseases are coming we have to be prepared every time stop saying no medicine for HIV AIDS what are you doing? Doctors are you waiting Jesus to come with medicine?

  2. nobody -  March 20, 2015 - 9:46 am

    Ya”ll need to shut up and be serious and this is not a game. you dont know who i am thats way my name is nobody

  3. nobody -  March 20, 2015 - 9:43 am

    ya”ll need to shut up and be serious about hiv and aids this is not a game

    • Grace -  May 24, 2016 - 2:58 pm

      I agree. This is a very serious topic and is definitely NOT a game!!

  4. Doris -  June 17, 2013 - 4:56 am

    [b]DR Olorun is the only Dr who could ever get my HIV-AIDS cured with his healing spell, i have tried almost everything but i could’nt find any solution on my disease, despite all these happening to me, i always spend alot to buy a HIV drugs from hospital and taking some several medications but no relieve, until one day i was just browsing on the internet when i come accross a great post of !Michelle! who truly said that she was been diagnose with HIV and was healed that very week through the help of these great powerful healing spell doctor, sometime i really wonder why people called him Papa olorun, i never knew it was alll because of the great and perfect work that he has been doing that is causing all this. so i quickly contacted him, and he ask me some few questions and he said a thing i will never forget that anyone who contacted him is ! always getting his or her healing in just 6 hours after doing all he ask you, so i was amazed all the time i heard that from him, so i did all things only to see that at the very day which he said i will be healed, all the strenght that has left me before rush back and i becomes very strong and healthy, this disease almost kills my life all because of me, so i will to hospital to give the final test to the disease and the doctor said i am HIV negative, i am very amazed and happy about the healing Dr Olorun gave to me from the ancient part of africa, you can email him now for your own healing too at:Olorunoduduwaspiritualtemple@gmail.com thank you sir for healing me from HIV, i am Doris Carter. or call him now on +2348165219949

    • FroggyStyle -  April 1, 2014 - 3:09 am

      Wow, you are just the worst kind of person.

  5. Wholesale Apples -  April 9, 2013 - 5:40 am

    Wonderful items from you, man. I have remember your stuff previous to and you’re simply too wonderful. I actually like what you’ve got here, really like what you’re stating and the best way during which you are saying it. You’re making it enjoyable and you continue to take care of to stay it wise. I cant wait to read far more from you. This is really a terrific website.

  6. teresa -  September 17, 2012 - 1:35 pm

    People should not make a joke out of this

  7. nilea -  November 5, 2011 - 10:33 am

    ppl should be more careful

  8. adam carolla's disciple -  January 12, 2011 - 5:01 pm

    yeah, GRIDS! good call, ferry ferret!

  9. adam carolla's disciple -  January 12, 2011 - 5:00 pm

    yeah, GRIDS! good call there, ferry ferret!

  10. Tammy D -  December 25, 2010 - 11:22 am

    @sarah jane balabagan on December 2, 2010 at 8:17 am
    for those of you who said this was insightful, nice and informative, Where the heck have you been all your life???? STOOOPIIIIID people!!! This is so basic and for you not to know it is the exact same reason why many people contract it and die from it.

    Me: I’ve seen this with almost everybody I ever spoken to about STD’s. It’s like they just don’t pay attention to the way things are in the world. They also say unprotected sex is okay because STD’s are curable. I don’t care if I can go to the doctor and get a prescription to cure chlamydia or gonorrea after I get it; I don’t want to contract it in the first place, just like I don’t want to get HIV.

    Why is it so many people don’t know the simplest things about HIV and AIDS? I think it’s because they choose to be ignorant. They just don’t care, until it’s them with AIDS. Then they don’t even understand how they got it. Why is it so hard to understand the importance of “safe” sex? Or at least lower-risk sex, using condoms and dental dams to prevent the sppread of STD’s?

  11. Prof. William Parker Ph.D. -  December 7, 2010 - 9:19 am

    That was quiet elementary, even my 4 years old niece knew that. Of course he inherit her brilliant mind to his uncle which is ME.I predict when she grew up her IQ would be 140 which is needless to say 11points lower than my IQ.

  12. crushin -  December 5, 2010 - 8:42 pm

    @ Susan I am sorry about you loss.

    My aunt is a AIDS carrier and has had HIV\AIDS since I was little and she is now in her 30′s and in a horrible state. I love her and I pray for those that have AIDS\HIV…it’s devastating.

    • Emily -  February 13, 2016 - 7:20 pm

      My Niece, Klaire, died at the age of 3 months and 12 days. People think this is funny and that is the most immature thing to do. People are making fun of all the people who have died and have AIDS. It really upsets me and I pray for your Aunt that she will be cured from a miracle sent from God and pray for my Niece that she is in Heaven.

  13. Susan -  December 4, 2010 - 9:37 am

    To my knowledge, the combination of AZT and Interferon is never used now to help treat AIDS/HIV. In 1987, my dear brother was in an experimental protocol. The doctor put him on the fatal combination of AZT/Interferon which put him into cardiac arrest and killed him at age 36.

  14. There'snogoodnamsanymore -  December 4, 2010 - 8:33 am

    Hmmmm. Yes. This is good information and very scarcely known, I might add. Just like the definition of Ymca: Young Men’s Christian Association.

  15. David -  December 3, 2010 - 6:12 am

    @ Ben Curtis – reading my mind… thanks.

  16. Padshah, Stanikzai -  December 3, 2010 - 3:46 am

    WEll, Let me thank you for sharing such information with people.

  17. Nazish -  December 2, 2010 - 9:54 am

    Definetly useful and interesting.
    Lets just pray that there will be a cure oneday for HIV and people can have sex without condoms.

  18. Ben Curtis -  December 2, 2010 - 9:10 am

    I appreciate the information you have here. AIDS awareness is startlingly low.

    On the topic of words, though, you missed a great opportunity to illuminate the difference between an abbreviation, an acronym, and an initialism:

    - AZT is an abbreviation: the word “azidothymidine” is shortened to something more memorable. Other abbreviations: etc., Xmas, 4th, Inc.

    - AIDS is an acronym: a new word (pronounced as a word) formed from the significant letters in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Other acronyms: SCUBA, LASER, NATO.

    - HIV is an initialism: a new word (pronounced as individual letters) formed from the significant letters in Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Other initialisms: FBI, USA, LLC.

  19. robert -  December 2, 2010 - 9:09 am

    Hi, Not just for the men to acknowledge, but everyone needs to, thanks for the well informative report about AIDS/HIVS. It is impressive to learn about it even if dreadful to hear, but worth to learn. Again, Thanks.


    • Khalid Yousif Mohammed -  November 15, 2014 - 12:23 pm

      I want to know and learn more about HIV/AIDS

  20. Wrasfish -  December 2, 2010 - 8:40 am

    Now, what if the big oil spill had caused the extinction of the particular species of fish that produces the particular kind of sperm needed to produce the AZT?

    What other undiscovered cures are we destroying when we waste our environment?

  21. KToast -  December 2, 2010 - 8:21 am

    You neglected another interesting part of the acronym’s etymology: the fact that it originally wasn’t called AIDS at all. It was called the much more offensive and inaccurate “GRIDS.”

  22. sarah jane balabagan -  December 2, 2010 - 8:17 am

    for those of you who said this was insightful, nice and informative, Where the heck have you been all your life???? STOOOPIIIIID people!!! This is so basic and for you not to know it is the exact same reason why many people contract it and die from it.

  23. STEPHEN HICKS -  December 2, 2010 - 6:53 am

    The history of AIDS, our initial international repugnancy towards its sufferers, etc. is a TRAGIC page in our history.
    So, bearing that in mind …please don’t misinterpret my next statement.
    As this is a dictionary site: AIDS is indeed an “acronym”, but correct me if I’m wrong: is HIV not classified as an “initialism”?
    I could be wrong on this, but as I understand it; all acronyms are initialisms, but not all initialisms are acronyms?
    Fat Gordie

  24. ANNA -  December 1, 2010 - 10:25 pm

    Let’s hope that there will be a cure…

  25. Mia -  December 1, 2010 - 9:12 pm

    More info is that more straight people AID and HIV then Homosexuals which where once thought to have been the cause of the disease.

  26. Caroline Tan -  December 1, 2010 - 8:57 pm

    evil AIDS! took the life of the legendary Freddy Mercury!

  27. shyjupedachi -  December 1, 2010 - 8:29 pm

    This information is very good and i need one information. How can undarstand aids for examble one man have aids how can he know.

  28. Ferret -  December 1, 2010 - 8:24 pm

    Its good thing to spread AIDS awareness. It’s quite terrible what they once said about AIDS. It was called GRID, which is an acronym for “Gay-Related Immunodeficiency” simply because many of the first patients were male and homosexual. However, science has proven that hetrosexual women are more likely to catch it from their partners than men are. Even so, the stereotypes that ravaged society were terrible. Politicians didn’t make it any better.
    The reason for the increased risk for life-threatening infections, cancers, and other neurological disorders is because the HIV virus attacks and kills white blood cells, which makes the body weaker. White blood cells are needed to kill off sickness and infection, and without them any invader in the body is potentially fatal.
    Scientists actually DO know why the body can’t fight off HIV; it doesn’t see HIV as an invader, as strange as it sounds. The virus is covered in a layer of proteins familiar to the body. The white blood cells can’t see through the layer of protein, and HIV conquers white blood cells and divides while completely undetected.
    I have a lot more information on AIDS, so feel free to comment to ask me question if you wish :)

  29. RR298 -  December 1, 2010 - 8:10 pm

    fell bad for the people with AIDS/HIV will pray for them glad i dont have AIDS/HIV

  30. AIDS Carrier -  December 1, 2010 - 7:48 pm

    yeh its pretty bad, makes me worried all day, makes the world so dull

  31. court30 -  December 1, 2010 - 6:43 pm

    fish sperm? wow how random

  32. Kevin Eddings -  December 1, 2010 - 6:39 pm

    AZT was among the first drugs developed to fight HIV and AIDS. It was widely used in the 80′s. About 20 yrs ago, it was replaced by much more effective drugs. The drugs of choice today are known as protease inhibitors.

  33. Randomhappy -  December 1, 2010 - 5:35 pm

    Its good to see that fish sperm is being utilized to help ppl infected by AID/HIV. its another interseting way in which science has found a wacky solution. atleast its doing more good than just making little baby fishies.

  34. yur favotite mom -  December 1, 2010 - 5:15 pm

    woooooooohoooo amazazinggg i lurve all you guyz with aids keep on fightinggg!

  35. Jane Public -  December 1, 2010 - 4:53 pm

    While this is the commonly accepted theory regarding HIV and AIDS, many in the scientific community have a different opinion. For another view – and supporting medical studies – visit http://www.rethinkingaids.com.

    Although not convinced of these alternative theories it certainly piqued my interest enough to make me want to learn more about both theories instead of just blindly accepting what I’ve been told the last 25 years.

  36. Alli -  December 1, 2010 - 4:43 pm

    wow :P

  37. Alli -  December 1, 2010 - 4:43 pm

    I did not know that! :)

  38. adeana -  December 1, 2010 - 3:42 pm

    this information is good to inform people about this diease.

  39. Anthony -  December 1, 2010 - 1:08 pm

    Very informative :)

  40. AIDS | BLOGCHI@mayopia.com -  December 1, 2010 - 1:00 pm

    [...] ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME “And the Band Played ON” — Hey Diddle Diddle — Blood is the Riddle — “A Drop of Blood” and we’re gone — Most of the folk in the Blood Drop Movie — hemophiliacs and friends of ours — are still alive in the minds of their loved ones — and whenever the film is viewed. — Coincidence or Conspiracy need not be misconstrued — it’s simple enough without secrets — to sing another tune — if we keep on the way we are — None of us are Immune. –>>Rupert L.T.Rhyme [...]

    • Lachlan Green -  May 25, 2014 - 7:33 pm

      yeah bro juicy/yummy

      • jack balfour -  May 25, 2014 - 7:35 pm

        you know i once gave aids to my mum

        • Tullic Obrien -  May 25, 2014 - 7:36 pm

          aw yeah i remember that it was a good night


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